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black american

black american

16. TROVATORE "Scraps From The Operas" by Justin Holland; two guitars

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Opera: Il Trovatore (The Troubadour) Composer: Giuseppe Verdi Premiere: Rome, 1853. Publication series: "Scraps From The Operas Arranged For Two Guitars By Justin Holland" Number: 16 of 20 Published: 1868 Scrap: Andantino. You need to know that Manrico, the "troubadour", believes the old gypsy Azucena is his mother. In fact, in her panic she had thrown her own son on the pyre her mother was burned on, and then kidnapped the old Count's son and raised him as her own. This makes Manrico and his enemy, the young Count di Luna, brothers. In Act 4 of 4, Azucena has finally been captured by Count di Luna. So has Manrico. Azucena has visions of her mother being burned at the stake. She's certain the same fate is in store for her. The opening chords of this scrap accompany Azucena's plea to Manrico to wake her if he sees "the horrid glare of the stake." Manrico tells her (0:16) to find some peace in sleep. In the duet (0:37) "Ai nostri monti ritorneremo" ("Home to our mountains"), Azucena, half asleep, imagines the peaceful life of old they will have when they return to their mountains. Later, as the quarrel between Manrico and Leonora over the deal she cut with di Luna to secure Manrico's freedom reaches a peak, Azucena in her semi-delirious state quietly breaks in with her peaceful "Home to our mountains" vision again - a goose-bumpy scene if ever there was one. In case you're curious, Count di Luna will get nothing from Leonora; she's already near death from the poison she took. Di Luna will order Manrico beheaded. And a moment later Azucena will have the satisfaction of informing di Luna he just killed his brother. *** Justin Holland (1819-1887) was a 19th-century black American guitarist. He was the most important guitarist of his generation. Over 300 of his guitar arrangements were published. His earlier editions predate the Civil War. He would have been a household name to anyone who played guitar in that era of home music-making. Moreover, Justin Holland devoted much of his life to working for the end of slavery and the advancement of his race. He participated in the operation of the Underground Railroad in Cleveland. He secured recognition of African-American Freemasons by white Freemasons in Europe. He joined other African-American leaders in local, state, and national Negro Conventions. Guitar Primo (left) - Bob Wysong Guitar Secondo (right) - Donald Sauter Recorded: ca 2008 Credit: Sheet music from the Vahdah Olcott-Bickford collection (IGRA) - only one of the Scraps From The Operas series I couldn't find at the Library of Congress. Other stills from old copies of "The Victrola Book of the Opera" (5th through 10th editions, copyright 1919-1929.) Feel free to download mp3s of the "opera scraps" at: http://www.donaldsauter.com/justin-holland-guitar.htm#p3 More keywords: italo campanini louise homer riccardo martin giovanni martinelli aureliano pertile leo slezak alan turner nicola zerola